Updated: Dec 19, 2022
This is the first of three blog posts about automotive EMC standards and regulations. In the following, the UNECE R10 and the referred EMC standards are introduced. The ECE R10 is an international regulation regarding electromagnetic compatibility of vehicles of the following categories :
L: Motor vehicles with less than four wheels
M: Power-driven vehicles having at least four wheels and used for the carriage of passengers
N: Power-driven vehicles having at least four wheels and used for the carriage of goods
O: Trailers (including semi–trailers)
T, R, S: Agricultural vehicles
1. What is the UNECE?
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is based in Geneva (Switzerland) and is the subordinate body of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The UNECE is responsible for questions of economic cooperation in Europe and North America.
2. What is the UNECE R10?
The UNECE Regulation No. 10 is about electromagnetic compatibility for the automotive industry. It states that every vehicle and every electronic sub-assembly (ESA) that is sold in any of the UNECE member countries should be compliant with the UNECE R10 requirements.
The most recent and updated the version of Regulation 10 is revision 6 from 2019 (ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2019/20) .
The UNECE R10 concerns the adoption of harmonized technical United Nations Regulations for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted based on these United Nations Regulations. More specifically, this UNECE R10 applies to the following elements:
Vehicles of categories L, M, N O, T, R and S with regard to electromagnetic compatibility. This includes two- and three-wheeled motorcycles, mopeds, electric bicycles, four-wheeled (or more) vehicles for carrying passengers or cargo, and trailers (including semitrailers).
Components and separate technical units intended to be fitted in these vehicles with regard to electromagnetic compatibility.
The UNECE Regulation No. 10 is applied by the following countries :
E8, Czech Republic
E11, United Kingdom
E22, Russian Federation
E30, Republic of Mo.dova
E31 Bosnia and Herzegovina
E40, Nortz Macedonia
E42, European Union
E47, South Africa
E48, New Zealand
E51, Republic of Korea
E57, San Marino
So far, the United States of America does not apply the UNECE R10 (the USA is not part of the list in ).
3.1 What does the UNECE R10 cover?
Requirements regarding the immunity to radiated and conducted disturbances for functions related to direct control of the vehicle, related to driver, passenger and other road users' protection, related to disturbances, which would cause confusion to the driver or other road users, related to vehicle data bus functionality, related to disturbances, which would affect vehicle statutory data.
Requirements regarding the control of unwanted radiated and conducted emissions to protect the intended use of electrical or electronic equipment at own or adjacent vehicles or nearby, and the control of disturbances from accessories that may be retrofitted to the vehicle.
Additional requirements for vehicles and electronic sub-assemblies (ESAs) providing coupling systems for charging the rechargeable energy storage system (REESS) regarding the control of emissions and immunity from this connection between vehicle and power grid.
Apart from the usual definitions found in EMC standards, there are some specific terms in UNECE R10 which deserve to be explained further
Electrical/electronic sub-assembly (ESA) means an electrical and/or electronic device or set(s) of devices intended to be part of a vehicle, together with any associated electrical connections and wiring, which performs one or more specialized functions. An ESA may be approved at the request of a manufacturer or his authorized representative as either a "component" or a "separate technical unit (STU)".
ESA type in relation to electromagnetic compatibility means ESAs, which do not differ in such essential respects as:
The function performed by the ESA.
The general arrangement of the electrical and/or electronic components, if applicable.
Broadband emission means an emission, which has a bandwidth greater than that of a particular measuring apparatus or receiver (International Special Committee on Radio Interference CISPR 25).
Narrowband emission means an emission which has a bandwidth less than that of a particular measuring apparatus or receiver (CISPR 25).
4. Automotive EMC standards
The UNECE R10 refers to many EMC standards to define the limits and the test set-ups:
CISPR 12 "Vehicles', motorboats' and spark-ignited engine-driven devices' radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement", fifth edition 2001 and Amd1: 2005.
CISPR 16-1-4 "Specifications for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus apparatus - Antennas and test sites for radiated disturbances measurements", third edition 2010.
CISPR 25 "Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics for the protection of receivers used on board vehicles", second edition 2002 and corrigendum 2004.
ISO 7637-2 "Road vehicles - Electrical disturbance from conduction and coupling - Part 2: Electrical transient conduction along supply lines only on vehicles with nominal 12 V or 24 V supply voltage", second edition 2004.
ISO-EN 17025 "General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories", second edition 2005 and Corrigendum: 2006.
ISO 11451 "Road vehicles - Electrical disturbances by narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy - Vehicle test methods": Part 1: General and definitions (ISO 11451-1, third edition 2005 and Amd1: 2008); Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation source (ISO 11451-2, fourth edition 2015); Part 4: Bulk current injection (BCI) (ISO 11451-4, third edition 2013).
ISO 11452 "Road vehicles - Electrical disturbances by narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy - Component test methods": Part 1: General and definitions (ISO 11452-1, third edition 2005 and Amd1: 2008); Part 2: Absorber-lined chamber (ISO 11452-2, second edition 2004); Part 3: Transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) cell (ISO 11452-3, third edition 2016); Part 4: Bulk current injection (BCI) (ISO 11452-4, fourth edition 2011); Part 5: Stripline (ISO 11452-5, second edition 2002).
ITU Radio Regulations, edition 2008.
IEC 61000-3-2 "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-2 - Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A per phase)", edition 3.2 - 2005 + A1: 2008 + A2: 2009.
IEC 61000-3-3 "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-3 - Limits - Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage systems for equipment with rated current ≤ 16 A per phase and not subjected to conditional connection", edition 2.0 - 2008.
IEC 61000-3-11 "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-11 - Limits - Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage systems - Equipment with rated current ≤ 75 A per phase and subjected to conditional connection", edition 1.0 - 2000.
IEC 61000-3-12 "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-12 - Limits for harmonic current emissions produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current > 16 A and ≤ 75 A per phase", edition 1.0 - 2004.
IEC 61000-4-4 "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-4 - Testing and measurement techniques - Electrical fast transients/burst immunity test", edition 2.0 - 2004.
IEC 61000-4-5 "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5 - Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test", edition 2.0 - 2005.
IEC 61000-6-3 "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-3 - Generic standards Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments", edition 2.0 - 2006.
CISPR 16–2–1 "Specification for radio disturbances and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 2-1 - Methods of measurement of disturbances and immunity - Conducted disturbances measurement", edition 2.0 - 2008.
CISPR 22 "Information Technology Equipment - Radio disturbances characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement", edition 6.0 - 2008.
CISPR 16-1-2 "Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-2: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Ancillary equipment - Conducted disturbances", edition 2 2014.
IEC 61851-1 "Electric vehicle conductive charging system – Part 1: General requirements ", edition 3.0 - 2017.
CISPR 32 "Electromagnetic compatibility of multimedia equipment – Emission requirements”, edition 2.0 – 2015.
5.1 Application for approval
The UNECE R10 distinguishes between the type approvals of vehicles vs. ESAs.
Vehicle type approval
It must be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer.
The manufacturer must provide a schedule describing all relevant vehicle electrical/electronic systems or ESAs, body styles, variations in body material, general wiring arrangements, engine variations, left-hand/right-hand drive versions and wheelbase versions. Relevant vehicle electrical/electronic systems or ESAs are those which may emit significant broadband or narrowband radiation and/or those which are involved in immunity related functions of the vehicle and those which provide coupling systems for charging the REESS.
A vehicle, which has to be representative of the type approved, shall be selected from the submitted schedule by mutual agreement between the manufacturer and the Type Approval Authority.
One or more vehicles might be selected if it is considered that different electrical/electronic systems are included which are likely to have a significant effect on the vehicle’s EMC compared with the fist representative vehicle.
For vehicles of categories L6, L7, M, N, O, T, R and S, the vehicle manufacturer shall provide a statement of frequency bands, power levels, antenna positions and installation provisions for the installation of radio frequency transmitters (RF-transmitters), even if the vehicle is not equipped with an RF transmitter at time of type approval. This should cover all mobile radio services normally used in vehicles. This information shall be made publicly available following the type approval.
Vehicle manufacturers shall provide evidence that vehicle performance is not adversely affected by such transmitter installations.
ESA type approval
Manufacturers must check the applicability of the UNECE R10 regulation to an ESA following the next flowchart:
The application for approval of a type of ESA shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by the manufacturer of the ESA.
The manufacturer may supplement the application with a report on tests which have been carried out. Any such data provided may be used by the Type Approval Authority for the purpose of drawing up the communication form for type approval.
5.2 Type approval of a vehicle
A vehicle can be approved by two different type approvals, each of them can be chosen by the vehicle manufacturer.
Approval of a vehicle installation: If this procedure is chosen by a vehicle manufacturer, no separate testing of electrical/electronic systems or ESAs is required.
Approval of a vehicle type by testing of individual ESAs: all the relevant electric/electronic systems or ESAs have been approved in accordance with the UNECE R10 regulation and have been installed in accordance with conditions attached thereto.
5.3 Type approval of an ESA
Type approval may be granted to an ESA to be fitted either to any vehicle type (component approval) or to a specific vehicle type or types requested by the ESA manufacturer (separate technical unit approval).
5.4 Granting of type approval
It can be distinguished between the configuration with and without rechargeable energy storage system (REESS).
5.4.1 Specification in configuration other than “REESS charging mode coupled to the power grid”
A vehicle shall be tested for radiated emissions and for immunity to radiated disturbances. No tests for conducted emissions or immunity to conducted disturbances are required for vehicle type approval.
ESA(s) shall be tested for radiated and conducted emissions, for immunity to radiated and conducted disturbances.
Before testing, the Technical Service has to prepare a test plan in conjunction with the manufacturer, which contains at least mode of operation, stimulated function(s), monitored function(s), pass/fail criterion(criteria) and intended emissions.
5.4.2 Specification in configuration “REESS charging mode coupled to the power grid”
A vehicle in configuration "REESS charging mode coupled to the power grid" shall be tested for radiated emissions, immunity to radiated disturbances, conducted emissions and immunity to conducted disturbances.
ESAs in configuration "REESS charging mode coupled to the power grid" shall be tested for radiated and conducted emissions, for immunity to radiated and conducted disturbances.
Before testing the Technical Service has to prepare a test plan in conjunction with the manufacturer, for the configuration "REESS charging mode coupled to the power grid" configuration which contains at least mode of operation, stimulated function(s), monitored function(s), pass/fail criterion (criteria) and intended emissions.
A vehicle in configuration "REESS charging mode coupled to the power grid" should be tested with the charging harness delivered by the manufacturer. In this case, the cable shall be type approved as part of the vehicle.
5.4.3 Electrostatic discharge
For vehicles fitted with tyres, the vehicle body/chassis can be considered to be an electrically isolated structure. Significant electrostatic forces in relation to the vehicle's external environment only occur at the moment of occupant entry into or exit from the vehicle. As the vehicle is stationary at these moments, no type approval test for electrostatic discharge is deemed necessary.
5.5 Marking requirement
An approval mark and number shall be assigned to each vehicle or ESA type approved, which shall be affixed to every vehicle or ESA conforming to a type approved under UNECE R10.
A contracting party may not assign the same approval number to another type of vehicle or ESA.
For both vehicles and sub-assemblies, the type of marking is the same. The criteria to place the markings are:
No marking is required for electrical/electronic systems built into vehicles which are approved as units.
Markings on ESAs in conformity with UNECE R10 need not be visible when the ESA is installed in the vehicle.
The approval mark shall be affixed, in a conspicuous and easily accessible place specified on the approval communication form, on each vehicle conforming to the type approved under this Regulation. This mark shall comprise:
A circle containing the letter "E", followed by the distinguishing number of the country granting the approval (e.g. E4 = The Netherlands).
The number of the UNECE Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle. The first two digits of the approval number represent the revision of the amendment to the regulation. In the example below, the approval number (06 2439) indicates that the approval was granted according to the requirements of Regulation No. 10 as amended by the 06 series of amendments.
The UNECE R10 is one of the most important automotive EMC regulation worldwide. It specifies radiated and conducted emissions and immunity requirements of cars, motorcycles, trailers, agricultural vehicles and electric sub-assemblies. However, there are no ESD requirements specified in UNECE R10.
 Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3). ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78. Economic and Social Council. Revision 6. 11. July. 2017. Paragraph 2.